The exodus of Huguenots from France created a brain drain , as many Huguenots had occupied important places in society. Fridiricu, Fidiricu , Italian: History and Memory in Transnational Context: For other uses, see Frederick of Sicily disambiguation.
Erinnerungs-Service per E-Mail
The Edict reaffirmed Roman Catholicism as the state religion of France, but granted the Protestants equality with Catholics under the throne and a degree of religious and political freedom within their domains.
The Edict simultaneously protected Catholic interests by discouraging the founding of new Protestant churches in Catholic-controlled regions. With the proclamation of the Edict of Nantes, and the subsequent protection of Huguenot rights, pressures to leave France abated. However, enforcement of the Edict grew increasingly irregular over time, making life so intolerable that many fled the country.
The Huguenot population of France dropped to , by the mids, of which a plurality lived in rural areas. The city's political institutions and the university were all handed over to the Huguenots. Tension with Paris led to a siege by the royal army in Peace terms called for the dismantling of the city's fortifications.
A royal citadel was built and the university and consulate were taken over by the Catholic party. By , the Huguenots were on the defensive, and the government increasingly applied pressure.
A series of three small civil wars known as the Huguenot rebellions broke out, mainly in southwestern France, between and in which the Reformed areas revolted against royal authority. The uprising occurred a decade following the death of Henry IV , a Huguenot before converting to Roman Catholicism, who had protected Protestants through the Edict of Nantes. The Huguenots responded by establishing independent political and military structures, establishing diplomatic contacts with foreign powers, and openly revolting against central power.
The rebellions were implacably suppressed by the French crown. Louis XIV gained the throne in and acted increasingly aggressively to force the Huguenots to convert. At first he sent missionaries , backed by a fund to financially reward converts to Roman Catholicism.
Then he imposed penalties, closed Huguenot schools and excluded them from favoured professions. Escalating, he instituted dragonnades , which included the occupation and looting of Huguenot homes by military troops, in an effort to forcibly convert them. In , he issued the Edict of Fontainebleau , revoking the Edict of Nantes and declaring Protestantism illegal. The revocation forbade Protestant services, required education of children as Catholics, and prohibited emigration.
It proved disastrous to the Huguenots and costly for France. It precipitated civil bloodshed, ruined commerce, and resulted in the illegal flight from the country of hundreds of thousands of Protestants many of whom were intellectuals, doctors and business leaders whose skills were transferred to Britain as well as Holland, Prussia, South Africa and other places they fled to.
The English authorities welcomed the French refugees, providing money from both government and private agencies to aid their relocation.
Those Huguenots who stayed in France were subsequently forcibly converted to Roman Catholicism and were called "new converts". After this, the Huguenots with estimates ranging from , to 1,,  fled to Protestant countries: England, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Norway, Denmark, and Prussia — whose Calvinist Great Elector Frederick William welcomed them to help rebuild his war-ravaged and underpopulated country.
Following this exodus, Huguenots remained in large numbers in only one region of France: In the early 18th century, a regional group known as the Camisards who were Huguenots of the mountainous Massif Central region rioted against the Catholic Church, burning churches and killing the clergy. It took French troops years to hunt down and destroy all the bands of Camisards, between and By then, most Protestants were Cevennes peasants.
It was still illegal, and, although the law was seldom enforced, it could be a threat or a nuisance to Protestants. Calvinists lived primarily in the Midi ; about , Lutherans accompanied by some Calvinists lived in the newly acquired Alsace , where the Treaty of Westphalia effectively protected them.
Two years later, with the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of , Protestants gained equal rights as citizens. The government encouraged descendants of exiles to return, offering them French citizenship in a 15 December Law:. Article 4 of 26 June Nationality Law stated: That decree will only produce its effects for the future. Foreign descendants of Huguenots lost the automatic right to French citizenship in by force of the Ordonnance du 19 octobre , which revoked the Nationality Law.
It states in article 3: They hid them in secret places or helped them get out of Vichy France. A diaspora of French Australians still considers itself Huguenot, even after centuries of exile. Long integrated into Australian society, it is encouraged by the Huguenot Society of Australia to embrace and conserve its cultural heritage, aided by the Society's genealogical research services. In the United States there are several Huguenot worship groups and societies.
One of the most active Huguenot groups is in Charleston, South Carolina. While many American Huguenot groups worship in borrowed churches, the congregation in Charleston has its own church.
Although services are conducted largely in English, every year the church holds an Annual French Service, which is conducted entirely in French using an adaptation of the Liturgies of Neufchatel and Vallangin Typically the Annual French Service takes place on the first or second Sunday after Easter in commemoration of the signing of the Edict of Nantes. Most French Huguenots were either unable or unwilling to emigrate to avoid forced conversion to Roman Catholicism.
As a result, more than three-quarters of the Protestant population of 2 million converted, 1 million, and , fled in exodus. The first Huguenots to leave France sought freedom from persecution in Switzerland and the Netherlands.
A couple of ships with around people arrived at the Guanabara Bay, present-day Rio de Janeiro , and settled on a small island. A fort, named Fort Coligny , was built to protect them from attack from the Portuguese troops and Brazilian natives. It was an attempt to establish a French colony in South America.
The fort was destroyed in by the Portuguese, who captured some of the Huguenots. The Portuguese threatened their Protestant prisoners with death if they did not convert to Roman Catholicism. The Huguenots of Guanabara, as they are now known, produced a declaration of faith to explain their beliefs to the Portuguese. This was their death sentence. This document, the Guanabara Confession of Faith became the first Protestant confession of faith in the whole of the Americas.
In , a group of Norman Huguenots under the leadership of Jean Ribault established the small colony of Fort Caroline on the banks of the St. Johns River in what is today Jacksonville, Florida.
This was the first French attempt at any permanent European settlement in the present-day continental United States , although previous Spanish attempts had been made as early as San Miguel de Gualdape. A September French naval attack against the new Spanish colony at St. Augustine failed when its ships were hit by a hurricane on their way to the Spanish encampment at Fort Matanzas.
Hundreds of French soldiers were stranded and surrendered to the numerically inferior Spanish forces led by Pedro Menendez. Menendez proceeded to massacre the defenseless Huguenots, who were among the French contingent. Afterwards, he wiped out the Fort Caroline garrison. The first Huguenot to arrive at the Cape of Good Hope was however Maria de la Quellerie , wife of commander Jan van Riebeeck and daughter of a Walloon church minister , who arrived on 6 April to establish a settlement at what is today Cape Town.
The couple left for the Batavia ten years later. Many of these settlers were settled in an area that was later called Franschhoek Dutch for "French Corner" , in the present-day Western Cape province of South Africa.
A large monument to commemorate the arrival of the Huguenots in South Africa was inaugurated on 7 April at Franschhoek , where the Huguenot Memorial Museum was erected in The official policy of the Dutch East India governors was to integrate the Huguenot and the Dutch communities. When Paul Roux, a pastor who arrived with the main group of Huguenots, died in , the Dutch administration, as a special concession, permitted another French cleric to take his place "for the benefit of the elderly who spoke only French".
Many families, today mostly Afrikaans -speaking, have surnames indicating their French Huguenot ancestry. French Huguenots made two attempts to establish a haven in North America. The French Wars of Religion precluded a return voyage, and the outpost was abandoned. War at home again precluded a resupply mission, and the colony struggled.
Augustine near Fort Caroline. A number of New Amsterdam's families were of Huguenot origin, often having emigrated as refugees to the Netherlands in the previous century. Upon their arrival in New Amsterdam, Huguenots were offered land directly across from Manhattan on Long Island for a permanent settlement and chose the harbour at the end of Newtown Creek , becoming the first Europeans to live in Brooklyn , then known as Boschwick, in the neighbourhood now known as Bushwick.
Huguenot immigrants did not disperse or settle in different parts of the country, but rather, formed three societies or congregations; one in the city of New York, another 21 miles north of New York in a town which they named New Rochelle , and a third further upstate in New Paltz. A small group of Huguenots also settled on the south shore of Staten Island along the New York Harbor , for which the current neighbourhood of Huguenot was named. New Rochelle , located in the county of Westchester on the north shore of Long Island Sound , seemed to be the great location of the Huguenots in New York.
It is said that they landed on the coastline peninsula of Davenports Neck called "Bauffet's Point" after travelling from England where they had previously taken refuge on account of religious persecution, four years before the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. They purchased from John Pell, Lord of Pelham Manor , a tract of land consisting of six thousand one hundred acres with the help of Jacob Leisler.
A small wooden church was first erected in the community, followed by a second church that was built of stone. Previous to the erection of it, the strong men would often walk twenty-three miles on Saturday evening, the distance by the road from New Rochelle to New York, to attend the Sunday service. The church was eventually replaced by a third, Trinity-St. The Huguenot cemetery, or the "Huguenot Burial Ground", has since been recognised as a historic cemetery that is the final resting place for a wide range of the Huguenot founders, early settlers and prominent citizens dating back more than three centuries.
Some Huguenot immigrants settled in central and eastern Pennsylvania. They assimilated with the predominantly Pennsylvania German settlers of the area. In several hundred French Huguenots migrated from England to the colony of Virginia, where the English Crown had promised them land grants in Lower Norfolk County. When they arrived, colonial authorities offered them instead land 20 miles above the falls of the James River, at the abandoned Monacan village known as Manakin Town , now in Goochland County.
Some settlers landed in present-day Chesterfield County. On 12 May , the Virginia General Assembly passed an act to naturalise the Huguenots still resident at Manakintown. Of the original settlers in the isolated settlement, many had died; others lived outside town on farms in the English style; and others moved to different areas.
Through the 18th and 19th centuries, descendants of the French migrated west into the Piedmont, and across the Appalachian Mountains into the West of what became Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri, and other states.
In the Manakintown area, the Huguenot Memorial Bridge across the James River and Huguenot Road were named in their honour, as were many local features, including several schools, including Huguenot High School. In the early years, many Huguenots also settled in the area of present-day Charleston, South Carolina. Elie Prioleau from the town of Pons in France, was among the first to settle there. He became pastor of the first Huguenot church in North America in that city. They were very successful at marriage and property speculation.
After petitioning the British Crown in for the right to own land in the Baronies, they prospered as slave owners on the Cooper, Ashepoo, Ashley and Santee River plantations they purchased from the British Landgrave Edmund Bellinger.
Some of their descendants moved into the Deep South and Texas, where they developed new plantations. The French Huguenot Church of Charleston, which remains independent, is the oldest continuously active Huguenot congregation in the United States.
Most of the Huguenot congregations or individuals in North America eventually affiliated with other Protestant denominations with more numerous members. The Huguenots adapted quickly and often married outside their immediate French communities, which led to their assimilation. Assimilated, the French made numerous contributions to United States economic life, especially as merchants and artisans in the late Colonial and early Federal periods. Paul Revere was descended from Huguenot refugees, as was Henry Laurens , who signed the Articles of Confederation for South Carolina; Jack Jouett , who made the ride from Cuckoo Tavern to warn Thomas Jefferson and others that Tarleton and his men were on their way to arrest him for crimes against the king; Reverend John Gano was a Revolutionary War chaplain and spiritual advisor to George Washington ; Francis Marion , and a number of other leaders of the American Revolution and later statesmen.
The last active Huguenot congregation in North America worships in Charleston, South Carolina, at a church that dates to The Society has chapters in numerous states, with the one in Texas being the largest.
The Dutch Republic rapidly became a destination for Huguenot exiles. Early ties were already visible in the "Apologie" of William the Silent , condemning the Spanish Inquisition , which was written by his court minister, the Huguenot Pierre L'Oyseleur, lord of Villiers.
As both spoke French in daily life, their court church in the Prinsenhof in Delft held services in French. The practice has continued to the present day. The ties between Huguenots and the Dutch Republic's military and political leadership, the House of Orange-Nassau , which existed since the early days of the Dutch Revolt, helped support the many early settlements of Huguenots in the Dutch Republic's colonies.
William formed the League of Augsburg as a coalition to oppose Louis and the French state. Consequently, many Huguenots considered the wealthy and Calvinist-controlled Dutch Republic, which also happened to lead the opposition to Louis XIV, as the most attractive country for exile after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. They also found many French-speaking Calvinist churches there which were called the " Walloon churches ". After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, the Dutch Republic received the largest group of Huguenot refugees, an estimated total of 75, to , people.
Amongst them were pastors. Huguenots intermarried with Dutch from the outset. One of the most prominent Huguenot refugees in the Netherlands was Pierre Bayle. He started teaching in Rotterdam , where he finished writing and publishing his multi-volume masterpiece, Historical and Critical Dictionary. It became one of the foundational texts of the US Library of Congress. Some Huguenot descendants in the Netherlands may be noted by French family names, although they typically use Dutch given names.
Due to the Huguenots' early ties with the leadership of the Dutch Revolt and their own participation, some of the Dutch patriciate are of part-Huguenot descent. Some Huguenot families have kept alive various traditions, such as the celebration and feast of their patron Saint Nicolas , similar to the Dutch Sint Nicolaas Sinterklaas feast.
The community they created there is still known as Fleur de Lys the symbol of France , an unusual French village name in the heart of the valleys of Wales. Nearby villages are Hengoed , and Ystrad Mynach. Both before and after the passage of the Foreign Protestants Naturalization Act , an estimated 50, Protestant Walloons and French Huguenots fled to England, with many moving on to Ireland and elsewhere. In relative terms, this was one of the largest waves of immigration ever of a single ethnic community to Britain.
Of the refugees who arrived on the Kent coast, many gravitated towards Canterbury , then the county's Calvinist hub. Many Walloon and Huguenot families were granted asylum there. Edward VI granted them the whole of the western crypt of Canterbury Cathedral for worship. In , this privilege was reduced to the south aisle and in to the former chantry chapel of the Black Prince. Other evidence of the Walloons and Huguenots in Canterbury includes a block of houses in Turnagain Lane, where weavers' windows survive on the top floor, as many Huguenots worked as weavers.
The Weavers, a half-timbered house by the river, was the site of a weaving school from the late 16th century to about It has been adapted as a restaurant—see illustration above. The house derives its name from a weaving school which was moved there in the last years of the 19th century, reviving an earlier use.
Other refugees practised the variety of occupations necessary to sustain the community as distinct from the indigenous population. Such economic separation was the condition of the refugees' initial acceptance in the city. They also settled elsewhere in Kent, particularly Sandwich , Faversham and Maidstone —towns in which there used to be refugee churches.
It is now located at Soho Square. They established a major weaving industry in and around Spitalfields see Petticoat Lane and the Tenterground in East London. The flight of Huguenot refugees from Tours , France drew off most of the workers of its great silk mills which they had built.
The French added to the existing immigrant population, then comprising about a third of the population of the city. Some Huguenots settled in Bedfordshire, one of the main centres of the British lace industry at the time.
Although 19th-century sources have asserted that some of these refugees were lacemakers and contributed to the East Midlands lace industry,   this is contentious. The implication that the style of lace known as 'Bucks Point' demonstrates a Huguenot influence, being a "combination of Mechlin patterns on Lille ground",  is fallacious: Many Huguenots from the Lorraine region also eventually settled in the area around Stourbridge in Worcestershire where they found the raw materials and fuel to continue their glassmaking tradition.
Anglicised names such as Tyzack, Henzey and Tittery are regularly found amongst the early glassmakers, and the region went on to become one of the most important glass regions in the country. Winston Churchill was probably one of the most prominent people of Huguenot descent, deriving from his American grandfather Leonard Jerome. Following the French crown's revocation of the Edict of Nantes , many Huguenots settled in Ireland in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, encouraged by an act of parliament for Protestants' settling in Ireland.
Smaller settlements, which included Killeshandra in County Cavan, contributed to the expansion of flax cultivation and the growth of the Irish linen industry. For over years, Huguenots were allowed to hold their services in Lady Chapel in St. A Huguenot cemetery is located in the centre of Dublin, off St. Prior to its establishment, Huguenots used the Cabbage Garden near the Cathedral.
A number of Huguenots served as mayors in Dublin, Cork, Youghal and Waterford in the 17th and 18th centuries. Numerous signs of Huguenot presence can still be seen with names still in use, and with areas of the main towns and cities named after the people who settled there.
A French church in Portarlington dates back to ,  and was built to serve the significant new Huguenot community in the town. At the time, they constituted the majority of the townspeople. Around , Huguenot refugees found a safe haven in the Lutheran and Reformed states in Germany and Scandinavia.
Nearly 50, Huguenots established themselves in Germany, 20, of whom were welcomed in Brandenburg-Prussia , where they were granted special privileges Edict of Potsdam and churches in which to worship such as the Church of St.
The Huguenots furnished two new regiments of his army: In Berlin, the Huguenots created two new neighbourhoods: By , one-fifth of the city's population was French speaking. The Berlin Huguenots preserved the French language in their church services for nearly a century. They ultimately decided to switch to German in protest against the occupation of Prussia by Napoleon in — Many of their descendants rose to positions of prominence.
The Count supported mercantilism and welcomed technically skilled immigrants into his lands, regardless of their religion. Other founding families created enterprises based on textiles and such traditional Huguenot occupations in France. The community and its congregation remain active to this day, with descendants of many of the founding families still living in the region.
Some members of this community emigrated to the United States in the s. The collection includes family histories, a library, and a picture archive. The exodus of Huguenots from France created a brain drain , as many Huguenots had occupied important places in society. The kingdom did not fully recover for years. The French crown's refusal to allow non-Catholics to settle in New France may help to explain that colony's low population compared to that of the neighbouring British colonies, which opened settlement to religious dissenters.
Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg , invited Huguenots to settle in his realms, and a number of their descendants rose to positions of prominence in Prussia. The persecution and flight of the Huguenots greatly damaged the reputation of Louis XIV abroad, particularly in England. The two kingdoms, which had enjoyed peaceful relations prior to , became bitter enemies and fought against each other in a series of wars called the " Second Hundred Years' War " by some historians from onward.
Several French Protestant churches are descended from or tied to the Huguenots, including:. However, if you would like to, you can change your cookie settings at any time. You may not disable certain types of cookies that are essential to the operation of our website and that are considered strictly necessary cookies. You can find detailed information about how cookies are used on this website by clicking on 'Find out more'.
Please switch to a different browser e. Chrome , Firefox or Safari. Motor racing technology for everyday traffic, a high-performance engine as the power source for a sporty, elegant sedan based on the BMW 5 Series, outstanding power combined with a supreme yet discreet appearance: The BMW M5 combines the performance figures of a top-class sports car with the comfort and functions of a high-performance business sedan.
In the current BMW M5, equipped with a 4. To mark the 30th anniversary of the BMW M5, BMW M GmbH engineers and designers have developed an exclusive special model of the current model generation which offers outstanding performance figures.
The Active M Differential of the rear axle differential has a specific control set-up to improve traction. Meanwhile the steering with M-specific Servotronic function features a more direct control map.
The shimmering, silken matt Frozen Dark Silver metallic finish emphasises the muscular, elegant shapes of the special model in especially impressive style. The same applies to the inch M light alloy wheels in Bicolor finish with mixed tyres. The special model is fitted with the M multifunction seat for driver and front passenger, meeting the very highest standards in terms of ergonomics and comfort with its numerous electrical adjustment options.
The Alcantara-leather combination in black contributes to seating comfort as well as to the interior ambience, as does the Alcantara anthracite applied to the centre console and door trim. The M sports steering wheel is likewise covered in Alcantara anthracite.
The figures are not based on an individual vehicle and do not constitute part of the product offer; they are provided solely for the purposes of comparison between different vehicle types. All vehicles, equipment, combination possibilities and varieties shown here are examples and can differ in your country.
To display province specific prices and fees please select your province. Changing the selected province will restart the configuration. Cookies are disabled, enable cookies to run page properly. Your browser is not up to date and may not be compatible with our website. Outstanding performance figures, exclusive design.
Honed to a sporty perfection.