Werner Heisenberg


In the late s it was decided to build a new station at its current location as part of a comprehensive transport plan for Mannheim and Ludwigshafen.

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Up until this time, matrices were seldom used by physicists; they were considered to belong to the realm of pure mathematics. Gustav Mie had used them in a paper on electrodynamics in and Born had used them in his work on the lattice theory of crystals in While matrices were used in these cases, the algebra of matrices with their multiplication did not enter the picture as they did in the matrix formulation of quantum mechanics.

Shortly after the discovery of the neutron by James Chadwick in , Heisenberg submitted the first of three papers [45] on his neutron-proton model of the nucleus. As applied in the university environment, political factors took priority over the historically applied concept of scholarly ability, [48] even though its two most prominent supporters were the Nobel Laureates in Physics Philipp Lenard [49] and Johannes Stark.

There had been many failed attempts to have Heisenberg appointed as professor at a variety of German universities. His attempt to be appointed as the successor to Arnold Sommerfeld failed because of opposition by the Deutsche Physik movement.

However, Sommerfeld stayed in his chair during the selection process for his successor, which took until 1 December The process was lengthy due to academic and political differences between the Munich Faculty's selection and that of the Reichserziehungsministerium Reich Education Ministry and the supporters of Deutsche Physik.

In , the Munich Faculty drew up a list of candidates to replace Sommerfeld as ordinarius professor of theoretical physics and head of the Institute for Theoretical Physics at the University of Munich. The three candidates had all been former students of Sommerfeld: The Munich Faculty was firmly behind these candidates, with Heisenberg as their first choice.

However, supporters of Deutsche Physik and elements in the REM had their own list of candidates, and the battle dragged on for over four years. During this time, Heisenberg came under vicious attack by the Deutsche Physik supporters.

In this, Heisenberg was called a "White Jew" i. Heisenberg fought back with an editorial and a letter to Himmler, in an attempt to resolve the matter and regain his honour. At one point, Heisenberg's mother visited Himmler's mother. The two women knew each other, as Heisenberg's maternal grandfather and Himmler's father were rectors and members of a Bavarian hiking club. In the letter to Heydrich, Himmler said Germany could not afford to lose or silence Heisenberg, as he would be useful for teaching a generation of scientists.

To Heisenberg, Himmler said the letter came on recommendation of his family and he cautioned Heisenberg to make a distinction between professional physics research results and the personal and political attitudes of the involved scientists. Müller was not a theoretical physicist, had not published in a physics journal, and was not a member of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft ; his appointment was considered a travesty and detrimental to educating theoretical physicists.

The three investigators who led the SS investigation of Heisenberg had training in physics—Heisenberg had participated in the doctoral examination of one of them at the Universität Leipzig. The most influential of the three was Johannes Juilfs. During their investigation, they became supporters of Heisenberg as well as his position against the ideological policies of the Deutsche Physik movement in theoretical physics and academia.

On 29 June , a Nazi Party newspaper published a column attacking Heisenberg. On 15 July , he was attacked in a journal of the SS. In June , Heisenberg bought a summer home for his family in Urfeld am Walchensee , in southern Germany.

However, Heisenberg refused an invitation to emigrate to the United States. The project had its first meeting on 16 September At a scientific conference on February at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics, called by the Army Weapons Office, Heisenberg presented a lecture to Reichs officials on energy acquisition from nuclear fission.

Heisenberg stressed that pure U had to be obtained to achieve a chain reaction. This machine, he noted, could be used in practical ways to fuel vehicles, ships and submarines. Heisenberg stressed the importance of the Army Weapons Office's financial and material support for this scientific endeavour.

A second scientific conference followed. Lectures were heard on problems of modern physics with decisive importance for the national defense and economy. The Reichs Research Council was to take on the project. Heisenberg still also had his department of physics at the University of Leipzig where work had been done for the Uranverein by Robert Döpel and his wife Klara Döpel.

On 4 June , Heisenberg was summoned to report to Albert Speer , Germany's Minister of Armaments, on the prospects for converting the Uranverein's research toward developing nuclear weapons. During the meeting, Heisenberg told Speer that a bomb could not be built before , because it would require significant monetary resources and number of personnel. After the Uranverein project was placed under the leadership of the Reichs Research Council, it focused on nuclear power production and thus maintained its kriegswichtig importance for the war ; funding therefore continued from the military.

The nuclear power project was broken down into the following main areas: The project was then essentially split up between a number of institutes, where the directors dominated the research and set their own research agendas.

About 70 scientists worked for the program, with about 40 devoting more than half their time to nuclear fission research. After , the number of scientists working on applied nuclear fission diminished dramatically. Many of the scientists not working with the main institutes stopped working on nuclear fission and devoted their efforts to more pressing war related work.

In September , Heisenberg submitted his first paper of a three-part series on the scattering matrix, or S-matrix , in elementary particle physics. The first two papers were published in [87] [88] and the third in This was the same precedent as he followed in in what turned out to be the foundation of the matrix formulation of quantum mechanics through only the use of observables. That same month, he moved his family to their retreat in Urfeld as Allied bombing increased in Berlin.

In the summer, he dispatched the first of his staff at the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut für Physik to Hechingen and its neighboring town of Haigerloch , on the edge of the Black Forest , for the same reasons. From 18—26 October, he travelled to German-occupied Netherlands. In December , Heisenberg visited German-occupied Poland. He made a short return trip in April. In December, Heisenberg lectured in neutral Switzerland. In January , Heisenberg, with most of the rest of his staff, moved from the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut für Physik to the facilities in the Black Forest.

The Alsos Mission was an Allied effort to determine if the Germans had an atomic bomb program and to exploit German atomic related facilities, research, material resources, and scientific personnel for the benefit of the US. Personnel on this operation generally swept into areas which had just come under control of the Allied military forces, but sometimes they operated in areas still under control by German forces.

To limit casualties and loss of equipment, many of these facilities were dispersed to other locations in the latter years of the war. This allowed the American task force of the Alsos Mission to take into custody a large number of German scientists associated with nuclear research. Henceforth, the main focus of the Alsos Mission was on these nuclear facilities in the Württemberg area.

He was taken to Heidelberg, where, on 5 May, he met Goudsmit for the first time since the Ann Arbor visit in Germany surrendered just two days later. Heisenberg would not see his family again for eight months, as he was moved across France and Belgium and flown to England on 3 July Nine of the prominent German scientists who published reports in Kernphysikalische Forschungsberichte as members of the Uranverein [] were captured by Operation Alsos and incarcerated in England under Operation Epsilon.

The facility had been a safe house of the British foreign intelligence MI6. During their detention, their conversations were recorded. Conversations thought to be of intelligence value were transcribed and translated into English.

The transcripts were released in At first there was disbelief that a bomb had been built and dropped. In the weeks that followed, the German scientists discussed how the USA may have built the bomb.

The morality of creating a bomb for the Nazis was also discussed. Only a few of the scientists expressed genuine horror at the prospect of nuclear weapons, and Heisenberg himself was cautious in discussing the matter. On 3 January , the 10 Operation Epsilon detainees were transported to Alswede in Germany, which was in the British occupation zone.

Heisenberg settled in Göttingen, also in the British zone. Shortly thereafter, it was renamed the Max Planck Institut für Physik , in honor of Max Planck and to assuage political objections to the continuation of the institute. Heisenberg was appointed president of the Deutsche Forschungsrat. With the merger, Heisenberg was appointed to the presidium. Heisenberg served until Also, from , Heisenberg's theoretical work concentrated on the unified field theory of elementary particles.

Heisenberg also became an ordentlicher Professor ordinarius professor at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München. The letter lauded the working conditions in the USSR and the available resources, as well as the favorable attitude of the Soviets towards German scientists. A courier hand delivered the recruitment letter, dated 18 July , to Heisenberg; Heisenberg politely declined. Heisenberg contributed to the understanding of the phenomenon of superconductivity with a paper in [] and two papers in , [] [] one of them with Max von Laue.

In the period shortly after World War II, Heisenberg briefly returned to the subject of his doctoral thesis, turbulence. Three papers were published in [] [] [] and one in He published three papers [] [] [] in , two [] [] in , and one [] in In late to early , Heisenberg gave the Gifford Lectures at St Andrews University , in Scotland, on the intellectual history of physics. The lectures were later published as Physics and Philosophy: The Revolution in Modern Science.

Other members of the Nuclear Physics Working Group in both and were: Wolfgang Paul was also a member of the group during He was a member of the Institute's Scientific Policy Committee, and for several years was the Committee's chairman.

In , Heisenberg gave a lecture at Harvard University on the historical development of the concepts of quantum theory. An English translation of its title is "Scientific and Religious Truth". Its stated goal was "In what follows, then, we shall first of all deal with the unassailability and value of scientific truth, and then with the much wider field of religion, of which — so far as the Christian religion is concerned — Guardini himself has so persuasively written; finally — and this will be the hardest part to formulate — we shall speak of the relationship of the two truths.

In January Heisenberg met Elisabeth Schumacher — at a private music recital. Elisabeth was the daughter of a well-known Berlin economics professor, and her brother was the economist E.

Schumacher , author of Small Is Beautiful. Heisenberg married her on 29 April. They had five more children over the next 12 years: Barbara, Christine, Jochen , Martin and Verena. Martin became a neurobiologist at the University of Würzburg and Jochen a physics professor at the University of New Hampshire. Heisenberg was raised and lived as a Lutheran Christian. Heisenberg recounted the philosophical conversations with his fellow students and teachers on understanding the atom while receiving his scientific training in Munich, Göttingen and Copenhagen.

In the history of science, ever since the famous trial of Galileo , it has repeatedly been claimed that scientific truth cannot be reconciled with the religious interpretation of the world. Although I am now convinced that scientific truth is unassailable in its own field, I have never found it possible to dismiss the content of religious thinking as simply part of an outmoded phase in the consciousness of mankind, a part we shall have to give up from now on.

The station forecourt is divided into three parts. Taxi stands and a parking area are located in the western part. The bus station is to the east under the main street. In the middle a four-track tunnel of the tram station was built under a pedestrian area; this is also used by the trains of the Rhine-Haardt Railway Rhein-Haardtbahn. Under the agreement concluded with Ludwigshafen, the city had committed to the new central station connected to the road and tram networks, so that it was easily reached from all parts of the city.

The underground tram station was built in anticipation of the planned removal of trams from all the inner city streets. An essential prerequisite for the transformation of the Ludwigshafen railway facilities was the removal of the freight and marshalling yards, which were moved to Mannheim. The new timetables after the relocation of the station was not much changed: The railway land around the old terminus was cleared and a second highway was built to Mannheim, with Federal Highway B 44 running from the northern end of the new station to Kurt Schumacher Bridge over the Rhine to Mannheim.

In September , trams began running through the new underground tramway. In the Rathaus-Center opened on the site of the former terminus; this is a high-rise building consisting of a shopping centre and the city hall. The western part of the former railway land was still largely derelict land in In the timetable of the summer of , 16 InterRegio trains stopped calling in Ludwigshafen. In , the Ludwigshafen-based urban planner Lars Piske described the station as sinking into uselessness and suggested that it had led to the loss of sales from Ludwigshafen to Mannheim.

In December , Rhine-Neckar Transport Rhein-Neckar-Verkehr closed two of the four tram tracks leading to the station, including the lines running through the tram tunnel. In the end this had only been used in peak hours, by about 1, passengers each day. In the timetable, the daily EC service to Graz is the only long-distance service at the station.

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