Friedland; Melanie Grunow Sobocinski 3 February Special test equipment is available for this in situ testing. An artifact that is not discovered in situ is considered out of context and as not providing an accurate picture of the associated culture. It has tremendous applications for cancer treatment, vaccination, diagnosis, regenerative medicine, and therapies for loss-of-function genetic diseases.
For hybridization histochemistry , sample cells and tissues are usually treated to fix the target transcripts in place and to increase access of the probe. The probe hybridizes to the target sequence at elevated temperature, and then the excess probe is washed away after prior hydrolysis using RNase in the case of unhybridized, excess RNA probe. Then, the probe that was labeled with either radio-, fluorescent- or antigen-labeled bases e.
ISH can also use two or more probes, labeled with radioactivity or the other non-radioactive labels, to simultaneously detect two or more transcripts. Target-specific probes hybridize to each target RNA. Subsequent signal amplification is predicated on specific hybridization of adjacent probes individual oligonucleotides [oligos] that bind side by side on RNA targets. A typical target-specific probe will contain 40 oligonucleotides, resulting in 20 oligo pairs that bind side-by-side on the target for detection of mRNA and lncRNA, and 2 oligos or a single pair for miRNA detection.
Signal amplification is achieved via a series of sequential hybridization steps. A pre-amplifier molecule hybridizes to each oligo pair on the target-specific RNA, then multiple amplifier molecules hybridize to each pre-amplifier. Next, multiple label probe oligonucleotides conjugated to alkaline phosphatase or directly to fluorophores hybridize to each amplifier molecule. When all target-specific probes bind to the target mRNA transcript, an 8, fold signal amplification occurs for that one transcript.
Separate but compatible signal amplification systems enable the multiplex assays. If you do not agree to the foregoing terms and conditions, you should not enter this site. Breast Carcinoma in Situ. Contents 1 Ductal Carcinoma in Situ 1.
Adapted from work by Difu Wu. How does DCIS typically present? A 24yr female presents to clinic reporting a breast lump, what is the most likely diagnosis? How is low grade LCIS best managed? There are numerous situations in which chemical intermediates are synthesized in situ in various processes.
This may be done because the species is unstable, and cannot be isolated, or simply out of convenience. Examples of the former include the Corey-Chaykovsky reagent and adrenochrome. In biomedical engineering, protein nanogels made by the in situ polymerization method provide a versatile platform for storage and release of therapeutic proteins. It has tremendous applications for cancer treatment, vaccination, diagnosis, regenerative medicine, and therapies for loss-of-function genetic diseases.
In chemical engineering, in situ often refers to industrial plant "operations or procedures that are performed in place. In architecture and building , in situ refers to construction which is carried out at the building site using raw materials. Compare that with prefabricated construction, in which building components are made in a factory and then transported to the building site for assembly. For example, concrete slabs may be in situ also "cast-in-place" or prefabricated. In situ techniques are often more labour-intensive, and take longer, but the materials are cheaper, and the work is versatile and adaptable.
Prefabricated techniques are usually much quicker, therefore saving money on labour costs, but factory-made parts can be expensive. They are also inflexible, and must often be designed on a grid, with all details fully calculated in advance. Finished units may require special handling due to excessive dimensions. The phrase may also refer to those assets which are present at or near a project site. In this case, it is used to designate the state of an unmodified sample taken from a given stockpile.
Site construction usually involves grading the existing soil surface so that material is "cut" out of one area and "filled" in another area creating a flat pad on an existing slope. The term "in situ" distinguishes soil still in its existing condition from soil modified filled during construction. The differences in the soil properties for supporting building loads, accepting underground utilities, and infiltrating water persist indefinitely. In computer science an in situ operation is one that occurs without interrupting the normal state of a system [ citation needed ].
For example, a file backup may be restored over a running system, without needing to take the system down to perform the restore. In the context of a database, a restore would allow the database system to continue to be available to users while a restore happened.
An in situ upgrade would allow an operating system , firmware or application to be upgraded while the system was still running, perhaps without the need to reboot it, depending on the sophistication of the system.
Another use of the term in-situ that appears in Computer Science focuses primarily on the use of technology and user interfaces to provide continuous access to situationally relevant information in various locations and contexts. An algorithm is said to be an in situ algorithm, or in-place algorithm , if the extra amount of memory required to execute the algorithm is O 1 [ citation needed ] , that is, does not exceed a constant no matter how large the input except for space for recursive calls on the "call stack.
For example, heapsort is an in situ sorting algorithm, which sorts the elements of an array in place. Quicksort is an in situ sorting algorithm, but in the worst case it requires linear space on the call stack this can be reduced to log space. Merge sort is generally not written as an in situ algorithm. In designing user interfaces , the term in situ means that a particular user action can be performed without going to another window [ citation needed ] , for example, if a word processor displays an image and allows the image to be edited without launching a separate image editor, this is called in situ editing.
Arguably, all asynchronous data transfers or any background task is in situ as the normal state is normally unaware of background tasks, usually notified on completion by a callback mechanism. In Big Data space, in situ data would mean bringing the computation to where data is located, rather than the other way  like in traditional RDBMS systems where data is moved to computational space.
In design and advertising the term typically means the superimposing of theoretical design elements onto photographs of real world locations. This is a pre-visualization tool to aid in illustrating a proof of concept. In physical geography and the Earth sciences , in situ typically describes natural material or processes prior to transport.
For example, in situ is used in relation to the distinction between weathering and erosion , the difference being that erosion requires a transport medium such as wind , ice , or water , whereas weathering occurs in situ. Geochemical processes are also often described as occurring to material in situ. In the atmospheric sciences , in situ refers to obtained through direct contact with the respective subject, such as a radiosonde measuring a parcel of air or an anemometer measuring wind, as opposed to remote sensing such as weather radar or satellites.
In economics, in situ is used when referring to the in place storage of a product, usually a natural resource.
More generally, it refers to any situation where there is no out-of-pocket cost to store the product so that the only storage cost is the opportunity cost of waiting longer to get your money when the product is eventually sold. Examples of in situ storage would be oil and gas wells, all types of mineral and gem mines, stone quarries, timber that has reached an age where it could be harvested, and agricultural products that do not need a physical storage facility such as hay. In electrochemistry , the phrase in situ refers to performing electrochemical experiments under operating conditions of the electrochemical cell, i.
This is opposed to doing ex situ experiments that are performed under the absence of potential control. In situ can refer to where a clean up or remediation of a polluted site is performed using and simulating the natural processes in the soil , contrary to ex situ where contaminated soil is excavated and cleaned elsewhere, off site. In experimental physics in situ typically refers to a method of data collection or manipulation of a sample without exposure to an external environment.
For example, the Si 7x7 surface reconstruction is visible using a scanning tunneling microscope when it is prepared and analyzed in situ.
In psychology experiments , in situ typically refers to those experiments done in a field setting as opposed to a laboratory setting.