The occupation of Poland was incomparably harsher, yet the Czechoslovak policy was if anything more vengeful. The 4th Ring Road Chinese:
In his own analysis of these sources, he calculated the total postwar expulsion deaths to be 1,, In , German historian Martin Broszat former head of the Institute of Contemporary History in Munich described Nawratil's writings as "polemics with a nationalist-rightist point of view and exaggerates in an absurd manner the scale of 'expulsion crimes'.
Fischer calls the book "problematic". Those who arrived were in bad condition—particularly during the harsh winter of —46, when arriving trains carried "the dead and dying in each carriage other dead had been thrown from the train along the way ". Once they arrived, they found themselves in a country devastated by war. Housing shortages lasted until the s, which along with other shortages led to conflicts with the local population.
France did not participate in the Potsdam Conference , so it felt free to approve some of the Potsdam Agreements and dismiss others. France maintained the position that it had not approved the expulsions and therefore was not responsible for accommodating and nourishing the destitute expellees in its zone of occupation.
While the French military government provided for the few refugees who arrived before July in the area that became the French zone, it succeeded in preventing entrance by later-arriving ethnic Germans deported from the East.
Britain and the US protested against the actions of the French military government but had no means to force France to bear the consequences of the expulsion policy agreed upon by American, British and Soviet leaders in Potsdam. France persevered with its argument to clearly differentiate between war-related refugees and post-war expellees.
In December it absorbed into its zone German refugees from Denmark,  where , Germans had traveled by sea between February and May to take refuge from the Soviets. These were refugees from the eastern parts of Germany, not expellees; Danes of German ethnicity remained untouched and Denmark did not expel them.
With this humanitarian act the French saved many lives, due to the high death toll German refugees faced in Denmark. Until mid, the Allies had not reached an agreement on how to deal with the expellees. France suggested immigration to South America and Australia and the settlement of 'productive elements' in France, while the Soviets' SMAD suggested a resettlement of millions of expellees in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
The Soviets, who encouraged and partly carried out the expulsions, offered little cooperation with humanitarian efforts, thereby requiring the Americans and British to absorb the expellees in their zones of occupation.
In contradiction with the Potsdam Agreements, the Soviets neglected their obligation to provide supplies for the expellees. The Western deliveries started in , but this turned out to be a one-way street.
The Soviet deliveries—desperately needed to provide the expellees with food, warmth, and basic necessities and to increase agricultural production in the remaining cultivation area—did not materialize. Consequently, the US stopped all deliveries on 3 May ,  while the expellees from the areas under Soviet rule were deported to the West until the end of In the British and US zones the supply situation worsened considerably, especially in the British zone.
Due to its location on the Baltic , the British zone already harbored a great number of refugees who had come by sea, and the already modest rations had to be further shortened by a third in March In Hamburg , for instance, the average living space per capita, reduced by air raids from The US and Britain had to import food into their zones, even as Britain was financially exhausted and dependent on food imports having fought Nazi Germany for the entire war, including as the sole opponent from June to June the period when Poland and France were defeated, the Soviet Union supported Nazi Germany, and the United States had not yet entered the war.
Consequently, Britain had to incur additional debt to the US, and the US had to spend more for the survival of its zone, while the Soviets gained applause among Eastern Europeans — many of whom were impoverished by the war and German occupation — who plundered the belongings of expellees, often before they were actually expelled. With ever more expellees sweeping into post-war Germany, the Allies moved towards a policy of assimilation , which was believed to be the best way to stabilise Germany and ensure peace in Europe by preventing the creation of a marginalised population.
When the Federal Republic of Germany was founded, a law was drafted on 24 August that was primarily intended to ease the financial situation of the expellees. The law, termed the Lastenausgleichsgesetz, granted partial compensation and easy credit to the expellees; the loss of their civilian property had been estimated at In countries occupied by Nazi Germany during the war, sexual relations between Wehrmacht soldiers and local women resulted in the birth of significant numbers of children.
Relationships between German soldiers and local women were particularly common in countries whose population was not dubbed "inferior" Untermensch by the Nazis. After the Wehrmacht's withdrawal, these women and their children of German descent were often ill-treated. For many war children, the situation would ease only decades after the war. With at least  12 million    Germans directly involved, possibly 14 million   or more,  it was the largest movement or transfer of any single ethnic population in European history    and the largest among the post-war expulsions in Central and Eastern Europe which displaced 20 to 31 million people in total.
The exact number of Germans expelled after the war is still unknown, because most recent research provides a combined estimate which includes those who were evacuated by the German authorities, fled or were killed during the war. It is estimated that between 12 and 14 million German citizens and foreign ethnic Germans and their descendants were displaced from their homes. The exact number of casualties is still unknown and is difficult to establish due to the chaotic nature of the last months of the war.
Census figures placed the total number of ethnic Germans still living in Eastern Europe in , after the major expulsions were complete, at approximately 2. The events have been usually classified as population transfer   or as ethnic cleansing. Rummel has classified these events as democide ,  and a few scholars go as far as calling it a genocide. The expulsions created major social disruptions in the receiving territories, which were tasked with providing housing and employment for millions of refugees.
West Germany established a ministry dedicated to the problem, and several laws created a legal framework. The expellees established several organisations, some demanding compensation. Their grievances, while remaining controversial, were incorporated into public discourse. International law on population transfer underwent considerable evolution during the 20th century.
Before World War II, several major population transfers were the result of bilateral treaties and had the support of international bodies such as the League of Nations. The tide started to turn when the charter of the Nuremberg trials of German Nazi leaders declared forced deportation of civilian populations to be both a war crime and a crime against humanity, and this opinion was progressively adopted and extended through the remainder of the century. Underlying the change was the trend to assign rights to individuals, thereby limiting the rights of nation-states to impose fiats which could adversely affect such individuals.
There is now general consensus about the legal status of involuntary population transfers: Although the signatories to the Potsdam Agreements and the expelling countries may have considered the expulsions to be legal under international law at the time, there are historians and scholars in international law and human rights who argue that the expulsions of Germans from Central and Eastern Europe should now be considered as episodes of ethnic cleansing , and thus a violation of human rights.
For example, Timothy V. In the s and s a Harvard -trained lawyer and historian, Alfred de Zayas , published Nemesis at Potsdam and A Terrible Revenge , both of which became bestsellers in Germany. In November , a major conference on ethnic cleansing in the 20th century was held at Duquesne University in Pittsburgh , along with the publication of a book containing participants' conclusions.
A Centre Against Expulsions was to be set up in Berlin by the German government based on an initiative and with active participation of the German Federation of Expellees. The Centre's creation has been criticized in Poland. Former Polish prime minister Donald Tusk restricted his comments to a recommendation that Germany pursue a neutral approach at the museum. German historian Andreas Hillgruber called the expulsions a "national catastrophe" and said in that they were as tragic as the Holocaust.
British historian Richard J. Evans wrote that although the expulsions of ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe was done in an extremely brutal manner that could not be defended, the basic aim of expelling the ethnic German population of Poland and Czechoslovakia was justified by the subversive role played by the German minorities before World War II. Historian Gerhard Weinberg wrote that the expulsions of the Sudeten Germans was justified as the Germans themselves had scrapped the Munich Agreement.
In June , German Chancellor Angela Merkel said that there had been "no moral or political justification" for the post-war expulsion of ethnic Germans. Nazi propaganda pictures produced during the Heim ins Reich and pictures of expelled Poles are sometimes published to show the flight and expulsion of Germans. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia. Demographic estimates of the flight and expulsion of Germans. As postulated and made a reality". Volume of Boston studies in the philosophy of science. Nationhood in German legislation.
Memory and Power in Post-War Europe: Studies in the Presence of the Past. Retrieved 30 January Porter, The Ghosts of Europe. Polish Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 28 October Gibney; Randall Hansen From to the Present. Archived from the original on 31 October Retrieved 29 August From the Nazi Era to German Unification 2 ed. Continuum International Publishing Group. Retrieved 28 August Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-century Europe. Population resettlement in international conflicts: Retrieved 27 August Princeton University Press, , p.
Revenge of the Periphery: The Contours of Legitimacy in Central Europe. Retrieved July 21, Statistisches Bundesamt - Wiesbaden. Historical Atlas of East Central Europe. Univ of Washington Pr, Seattle. Strukturwandel der deutschen Bevolkerung im polnischen Staats - und Verwaltungsbereich, Köln, Wissenschaft und Politik, p.
Bureau of the Census , The Population of Poland. Parker Mauldin, Washington , p. History, Data, Analysis M. University of North Carolina Press , , pp. Archived from the original on 2 March A Comparative Study , Lexington Books, , p. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag , , pp. LIT Verlag, , pp. Europe and German Unification: Germans on the East-West Divide , , p. The Soviet Union and the new Communist governments of the countries where these Germans had lived tried between and to eliminate the problem of minority populations that in the past had formed an obstacle to the development of their own national identity.
Johannes Rammund De Balliel-Lawrora, Diasporas and ethnic migrants: German, Israel, and post-Soviet successor states in comparative perspective. The origins and the political background". They were clearly victims of the Nazi occupation but nevertheless qualified to be denaturalised, if they had declared their native language to be German in the census of In Czechoslovakian nationalists and communists regarded this entry in the forms as an act of disloyalty against the republic. Sudetendeutsches Archiv, , pp.
Jüdische Geschichte als allgemeine Geschichte. Rummel; Irving Louis Horowitz I would rather be frank with you, Mr. Nothing on earth will stop the Poles from taking some kind of revenge on the Germans after the Nazi collapse. There will be some terrorism , probably short-lived, but it will be unavoidable.
And I think this will be a sort of encouragement for all the Germans in Poland to go west, to Germany proper, where they belong. Jahrhunderts , Berlin, Hamburg and Münster: LIT Verlag , , p. Und der Befehlshaber der 2.
Polnischen Armee wies seine Soldaten am Politiker jeglicher Couleur, Flugblätter und Zeitungen beider Staaten riefen nach Vergeltung für die brutale deutsche Besatzungspolitik" English translation: And the commander of the 2nd Polish Army instructed his soldiers on 24 June , to 'treat' the Germans 'how they had treated us', causing 'the Germans to flee on their own and thank God for having saved their lives'. Politicians of all political wings, leaflets and newspapers of both states [i.
PL and CS] called for revenge for the brutal occupation policy. After a democratic Czechoslovak government and a Communist Polish government pursued broadly similar policies toward their German minorities. Taken together, and in comparison to the chapters on the Polish expulsion of the Germans, these essays remind us of the importance of politics in the decision to engage in ethnic cleansing. It will not do, for example, to explain the similar Polish and Czechoslovak policies by similar experiences of occupation.
The occupation of Poland was incomparably harsher, yet the Czechoslovak policy was if anything more vengeful. Revenge is a broad and complex set of motivations and is subject to manipulation and appropriation.
The personal forms of revenge taken against people identified as Germans or collaborators were justified by broad legal definitions of these groups Die bewaffnete Macht in der Endphase der nationalsozialistischen Herrschaft bis 2nd edition , Munich: Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, , p.
From to the Present , , p. Beck, Under the Bombs: Die Vertreibung im deutschen Erinnern. Legenden, Mythos, Geschichte, Paderborn: Die bewaffnete Macht in der Endphase der nationalsozialistischen Herrschaft bis , 2nd edition, Munich: Bericht des Bundesarchivs vom Archivalien und ausgewählte Erlebnisberichte , Bonn: Kulturstiftung der deutschen Vertriebenen, , pp.
Deutsche Flüchtlinge in Dänemark — in German. Deutsche Flüchtlinge in Dänemark — Office of the Historian, Timeline of U. Die Stiftung, —, vol. Retrieved 2 October The Expulsion of Sudeten Germans". Retrieved 6 September Expulsion of the Germans from Czechoslovakia English ed. Die Vertreibung der deutschen Bevölkerung aus der Tschechoslowakei Band 1, , pp. Wallace 11 March Legenden, Mythos, Geschichte , Paderborn: Schöningh , , p.
Dokumentation der Vertreibung der Deutschen aus Ost-Mitteleuropa , pp. Fritz Valjavec , a scholar dealing with Balkan affairs since the s when he belonged to the Nazi Party. During the war he was an officer in the SS, and was directly implicated in the mass murder of Jews as a member of Einsatzgruppe D in Czernowitz. After the war, he was rehabilitated and selected to author the report on the expulsions from Hungary. Power and influence after the Cold War: Germany in East-Central Europe.
Die Vertreibung der Deutschen und Polen im Retrieved 1 September Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania im. Retrieved 31 July Dokumentacja Geograficzna in Polish. Geographical Studies in Polish and English. Political Migrations in Poland Die deutschen Vertriebenen in Zahlen , Bonn: Jahrhundert auf der Basis statistischer Angaben ". Kulturstiftung der deutschen Vertriebenen, , p. Yale University Press , , pp.
Süddeutscher Verlag, , p. Die deutschen Vertriebenen in Zahlen , part 1, Bonn: People were beaten, shot and raped. Even Soviet soldiers were taken aback, and some protected the German civilians. Kohlhammer, in German ; the editor for the section of the report for Romania was de: Wilfried Krallert , a scholar dealing with Balkan affairs since the s when he was Nazi party member, during the war he was an officer in the SS who was directly implicated in the plundering of cultural artifacts in eastern Europe [ where?
After the war he was rehabilitated [ clarification needed ] and chosen to author the sections of the demographic report on the expulsions from Hungary, Romania and Yugoslavia. Report on the situation of the German ethnic minority in the former Soviet Union, Council of Europe, , p. Report on the situation of the German ethnic minority in the former Soviet Union , Council of Europe, , p.
History, Data, Analysis , M. Sharpe , , p. Dokumentation der Vertreibung der Deutschen aus Ost-Mitteleuropa ; vol 5, Dokumentation der Vertreibung der Deutschen aus Ost-Mitteleuropa ; vol. Archived from the original pdf on 30 May Retrieved 30 April Germany and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History: A parallel Polish-language summary translation was also included. This paper was a presentation at an academic conference in Warsaw in Genocide and Mass Murder since 1,, in post war expulsions and an additional 1.
Maier, The Unmasterable Past: Schoenberg, Germans from the East: A Study of their migration, resettlement and subsequent group history, since , Springer, London, Ltd.
Menze, Anchor Atlas of World History, vol. Informationen zur Klärung der Schicksale von Flüchtlingen aus den. Bilanzierung der Forschung und Perspektiven für die künftige Forschungsarbeit Hildesheim: Kulturstiftung der deutschen Vertriebenen , pp.
Zur Geschichte der deutschen Bevölkerungswissenschaft". Bund der Vertriebenen, Pressemitteilung vom Rüdiger Overmans", Deutschlandfunk ; accessed 6 December Zur Geschichte der deutschen Bevölkerungswissensch". Das letzte Kapitel unbewältigter Vergangenheit , Universitas Verlag, 14th ed. West Germany and Eastern Europe, — Von der Gründung bis zur Gegenwart , Munich: Hamburg in der Nachkriegszeit: Beck , p. Vandreutstilling med fotografier av Einar Bangsund.
Barn av norske kvinner og tyske soldater —45 , willy-brandt-stiftung. Death by government 6 ed. Ethnic cleansing in twentieth-century Europe. Encyclopedia of the United Nations and international agreements. University of Rochester Press.
Ethnicity and democratisation in the new Europe. Archived from the original on 22 September Harvard Cold War studies book series. Dictionary of genocide, Volume 2. British opinion and post population transfer in context. Archived from the original pdf on 16 May Writing war in the twentieth century. University of Virginia Press.
Except for the bombing of German cities, which is widely known and addressed in such fictions as Kurt Vonnegut Jr. A Cold War in the Soviet Bloc. Retrieved 12 July A reappraisal of the German expulsions from Eastern Europe became possible after and the collapse of communism.
This contributed to a willingness on the part of Eastern European societies to remember the events of to An increasing and fruitful collaboration between Germany and the "affected" countries in the east was reflected in growing political contacts and in scholarly exchanges. Chapters 1—19 at Human Rights Web Hrweb.
Transakcja Wiazana ; accessed 6 December International studies in human rights. Mass expulsion in modern international law and practice. Retrieved 2 May Germany has provoked anger in Poland over plans to build a museum dedicated to German refugees who fled or were expelled from Poland after the Second World War. Modern Germany , vol 1: Pantheon , , pp. Cambridge University Press , , p. Green 22 December The New York Times. Retrieved 9 July Timeline Historiography Military history.
Belgium France Netherlands United Kingdom. Namibia South Africa Afrikaners. Ostsiedlung Flight and expulsion of Germans — Axis and Axis-aligned leaders. Bengal famine of Chinese famine of —43 Greek Famine of Dutch famine of —45 Vietnamese Famine of Retrieved from " https: Articles containing German-language text Articles with German-language external links Articles containing Polish-language text Webarchive template wayback links Articles with Czech-language external links Articles with Polish-language external links CS1 German-language sources de All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from May Articles with Dutch-language external links CS1 Polish-language sources pl Vague or ambiguous geographic scope from February Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December Articles with French-language external links CS1 maint: Views Read Edit View history.
In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 30 December , at The VenoTrain micro fashion color collection picks up on the latest trends, varying its range every year in the pantyhose version or as thigh-high stockings with a closed or open toe. Thanks to their high microfiber content, the VenoTrain micro fashion colors offer a rich depth of color in both warm and cool tones, and can be combined with new outfits to create a color-coordinated or brightly contrasting effect.
The "design edition" adds another dimension to the VenoTrain micro range and introduces two patterns to this stylish selection of compression stockings.
The "Tango" and "Jive" designs adorn the leg with elegant double stripes or the popular stripe and cable knit pattern. Both patterned designs are available as knee-high stockings, pantyhose, or thigh-high stockings with a closed toe. Choose from the wide range of VenoTrain micro standard and custom-made any standard or fashion color and dare an exceptional styling with batik-dyed pattern in navy blue or black. Try the individual handmade compression stockings VenoTrain micro in a batik look, they are as unique as you are.
If you are on your feet a lot or have to stand for long periods of time, you will enjoy the benefits that VenoTrain micro has to offer. The compression effect relieves pressure on your legs and promotes circulation thereby reducing aches, pains and swelling. The compression is highest at the ankle, gradually decreasing up the leg. The high microfiber content makes this compression stocking exceptionally soft and elastic.
You will not sweat under it and it always allows sufficient air to circulate to your skin.