Discrete and combinatorial mathematics. From the magnitudes and the geometry, we find that the wave vectors are. Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images Wikipedia spam cleanup from October Wikipedia further reading cleanup All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from October Articles with permanently dead external links. This page was last edited on 18 December , at
The reflectance for s-polarized light is. We restrict our scope to non-magnetic media i. Then the wave impedances are determined solely by the refractive indices n 1 and n Making this substitution, we obtain equations using the refractive indices:. As a consequence of conservation of energy , one can find the transmitted power or more correctly, irradiance: Note that all such intensities are measured in terms of a wave's irradiance in the direction normal to the interface; this is also what is measured in typical experiments.
Although these relationships describe the basic physics, in many practical applications one is concerned with "natural light" that can be describe as unpolarized. That means that there is an equal amount of power in the s and p polarizations, so that the effective reflectivity of the material is just the average of the two reflectivities:.
For low-precision applications involving unpolarized light, such as computer graphics , rather than rigorously computing the effective reflection coefficient for each angle, Schlick's approximation is often used.
Thus, the reflectance simplifies to. At a dielectric interface from n 1 to n 2 , there is a particular angle of incidence at which R p goes to zero and a p-polarised incident wave is purely refracted. When light travelling in a denser medium strikes the surface of a less dense medium i. This phenomenon is known as total internal reflection. The above practical equations relating powers which could be measured with a photometer for instance are derived from the actual Fresnel equations which solve the physical problem in terms of electric and magnetic field amplitudes.
Those underlying equations supply generally complex-valued ratios of those amplitudes and may take several different forms, depending on formalisms used. The amplitude coefficients are usually represented by lower case r and t whereas the power coefficients are capitalized.
In the following, the reflection coefficient r is the ratio of the reflected wave's complex electric field amplitude to that of the incident wave. The transmission coefficient t is the ratio of the transmitted wave's electric field amplitude to that of the incident wave. We require separate formulae for the s and p polarizations.
Note that in the cases of an interface into an absorbing material where n is complex or total internal reflection, the angle of transmission might not evaluate to a real number. We consider the sign of a wave's electric field in relation to a wave's direction.
Consequently for p polarization at normal incidence, the positive direction of electric field for an incident wave to the left is opposite that of a reflected wave also to its left ; for s polarization both are the same upward.
One can write similar equations applying to the ratio of magnetic fields of the waves, but these are usually not required. Because the reflected and incident waves propagate in the same medium and make the same angle with the normal to the surface, the power reflection coefficient R is just the squared magnitude of r: On the other hand, calculation of the power transmission coefficient T is less straight-forward, since the light travels in different directions in the two media.
What's more, the wave impedances in the two media differ; power is only proportional to the square of the amplitude when the media's impedances are the same as they are for the reflected wave. This results in :.
The phase shift of the reflected wave on total internal reflection can similarly be obtained from the phase angles of r p and r s whose magnitudes are unity. These phase shifts are different for s and p waves, which is the well-known principle by which total internal reflection is used to effect polarization transformations. When light makes multiple reflections between two or more parallel surfaces, the multiple beams of light generally interfere with one another, resulting in net transmission and reflection amplitudes that depend on the light's wavelength.
The interference, however, is seen only when the surfaces are at distances comparable to or smaller than the light's coherence length , which for ordinary white light is few micrometers; it can be much larger for light from a laser.
An example of interference between reflections is the iridescent colours seen in a soap bubble or in thin oil films on water. A quantitative analysis of these effects is based on the Fresnel equations, but with additional calculations to account for interference.
In , the dependence of the polarizing angle on the refractive index was determined experimentally by David Brewster. In , however, Augustin-Jean Fresnel derived results equivalent to his sine and tangent laws above , by modeling light waves as transverse elastic waves with vibrations perpendicular to what had previously been called the plane of polarization.
Details of Fresnel's derivation, including the modern forms of the sine law and tangent law, were given later, in a memoir read to the French Academy of Sciences in January In the same memoir of January ,  Fresnel found that for angles of incidence greater than the critical angle, his formulas for the reflection coefficients r s and r p gave complex values with unit magnitudes.
Noting that the magnitude, as usual, represented the ratio of peak amplitudes, he guessed that the argument represented the phase shift, and verified the hypothesis experimentally. The success of the complex reflection coefficient inspired James MacCullagh and Augustin-Louis Cauchy , beginning in , to analyze reflection from metals by using the Fresnel equations with a complex refractive index.
Thus Fresnel's interpretation of the complex values of his reflection coefficients marked the confluence of several streams of his research and, arguably, the essential completion of his reconstruction of physical optics on the transverse-wave hypothesis see Augustin-Jean Fresnel. In order to compute meaningful Fresnel coefficients, we must assume the medium is approximately linear and homogeneous.
The index of refraction n inversely affects the phase velocity of a plane wave and inversely affects the magnitude of the wave vector k below:. Secondly, the wave impedance of a material defines the ratio of the magnitudes of the electric and magnetic field in a plane wave:. In free space Z takes the value of the impedance of free space:.
In a uniform plane sinusoidal electromagnetic wave , the electric field E has the form. So a phase advance is equivalent to multiplication by a complex constant with a negative argument. That factor also implies that differentiation w. Solving for k gives. Using the material properties discussed above, we can eliminate B and D to obtain equations in only E and H:.
Thus the above vector multiplications can be reduced to scalar multiplication. Solving the two equations for consistency, we find again the original constraint on the magnitude of k and the refractive index n:. And using the two equations, dividing the magnitude of H by E again yields the wave admittance reciprocal of the wave impedance:. Then the xz plane is the interface, and the y axis is normal to the interface see diagram.
Let i and j in bold roman type be the unit vectors in the x and y directions, respectively. Hence, by 2 , the magnitude of the wave vector is proportional to the refractive index. From the magnitudes and the geometry, we find that the wave vectors are. The corresponding dot products in the phasor form 3 are. Under the sign convention used in this article, a positive reflection or transmission coefficient is one that preserves the direction of the transverse field, meaning the field normal to the plane of incidence.
For the s TE polarization, that means the E field. At the interface, by the usual interface conditions for electromagnetic fields , the tangential components of the E and H fields must be continuous; that is,. When we substitute from equations 8 to 10 and then from 7 , the exponential factors cancel out, so that the interface conditions reduce to the simultaneous equations.
For the p polarization, the incident, reflected, and transmitted E fields are parallel to the red arrows and may therefore be described by their components in the directions of those arrows. Let the reflection and transmission coefficients be r p and t p. Press Release With graph and summary table. Strong job growth suggests that recession talk is premature. The jobs report released today was strong across the board.
From the Chief Economist.